Avoiding Catastrophic Forgetting by a Dual-Network Memory Model Using a Chaotic Neural Network

In neural networks, when new patterns are learned by a network, the new information radically interferes with previously stored patterns. This drawback is called catastrophic forgetting or catastrophic interference. In this paper, we propose a biologically inspired neural network model which overcomes this problem. The proposed model consists of two distinct networks: one is a Hopfield type of chaotic associative memory and the other is a multilayer neural network. We consider that these networks correspond to the hippocampus and the neocortex of the brain, respectively. Information given is firstly stored in the hippocampal network with fast learning algorithm. Then the stored information is recalled by chaotic behavior of each neuron in the hippocampal network. Finally, it is consolidated in the neocortical network by using pseudopatterns. Computer simulation results show that the proposed model has much better ability to avoid catastrophic forgetting in comparison with conventional models.

Adaptive Multi-Camera Shooting System Based on Dynamic Workflow in a Compact Studio

We developed a multi-camera control system that a (one) cameraman can operate several cameras at a compact studio. we analyzed a workflow of a cameraman of some program shootings with two cameras and clarified their heavy tasks. The system based on a dynamic workflow which adapts a program progressing and recommends of cameraman. we perform the automation of multicamera controls by modeling of studio environment and perform automatic camera adjustment for suitable angle of view with face detection. Our experiment at a real program shooting showed that one cameraman can carry out the task of shooting sufficiently.

Role of GIS in Distribution Power Systems

With the prevalence of computer and development of information technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have long used for a variety of applications in electrical engineering. GIS are designed to support the analysis, management, manipulation and mapping of spatial data. This paper presents several usages of GIS in power utilities such as automated route selection for the construction of new power lines which uses a dynamic programming model for route optimization, load forecasting and optimizing planning of substation-s location and capacity with comprehensive algorithm which involves an accurate small-area electric load forecasting procedure and simulates the different cost functions of substations.

A Matching Algorithm of Minutiae for Real Time Fingerprint Identification System

A lot of matching algorithms with different characteristics have been introduced in recent years. For real time systems these algorithms are usually based on minutiae features. In this paper we introduce a novel approach for feature extraction in which the extracted features are independent of shift and rotation of the fingerprint and at the meantime the matching operation is performed much more easily and with higher speed and accuracy. In this new approach first for any fingerprint a reference point and a reference orientation is determined and then based on this information features are converted into polar coordinates. Due to high speed and accuracy of this approach and small volume of extracted features and easily execution of matching operation this approach is the most appropriate for real time applications.

A Servo Control System Using the Loop Shaping Design Procedure

This paper describes an expanded system for a servo system design by using the Loop Shaping Design Procedure (LSDP). LSDP is one of the H∞ design procedure. By conducting Loop Shaping with a compensator and robust stabilization to satisfy the index function, we get the feedback controller that makes the control system stable. In this paper, we propose an expanded system for a servo system design and apply to the DC motor. The proposed method performs well in the DC motor positioning control. It has no steady-state error in the disturbance response and it has robust stability.

Linear Cryptanalysis for a Chaos-Based Stream Cipher

Linear cryptanalysis methods are rarely used to improve the security of chaotic stream ciphers. In this paper, we apply linear cryptanalysis to a chaotic stream cipher which was designed by strictly using the basic design criterion of cryptosystem – confusion and diffusion. We show that this well-designed chaos-based stream cipher is still insecure against distinguishing attack. This distinguishing attack promotes the further improvement of the cipher.

Optimization Method Based MPPT for Wind Power Generators

This paper proposes the method combining artificial neural network with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to implement the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by controlling the rotor speed of the wind generator. With the measurements of wind speed, rotor speed of wind generator and output power, the artificial neural network can be trained and the wind speed can be estimated. The proposed control system in this paper provides a manner for searching the maximum output power of wind generator even under the conditions of varying wind speed and load impedance.

Analysis of Partially Shaded PV Modules Using Piecewise Linear Parallel Branches Model

This paper presents an equivalent circuit model based on piecewise linear parallel branches (PLPB) to study solar cell modules which are partially shaded. The PLPB model can easily be used in circuit simulation software such as the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). This PLPB model allows the user to simulate several different configurations of solar cells, the influence of partial shadowing on a single or multiple cells, the influence of the number of solar cells protected by a bypass diode and the effect of the cell connection configuration on partial shadowing.

Discrete Modified Internal Model Control for a nth-order Plant with an Integrator and Dead-time

This paper deals with a design method of a discrete modified Internal Model Control (IMC) for a plant with an integrator and dead time. If there is a load disturbance in the input or output side of the plant, the proposed control system can eliminate the steady-state error caused by it. The disturbance compensator in this method is simple and its order is low regardless of that of a plant. The simulation studies show that the proposed method has superior performance for a load disturbance rejection and robustness.

Distance Transmission Line Protection Based on Radial Basis Function Neural Network

To determine the presence and location of faults in a transmission by the adaptation of protective distance relay based on the measurement of fixed settings as line impedance is achieved by several different techniques. Moreover, a fast, accurate and robust technique for real-time purposes is required for the modern power systems. The appliance of radial basis function neural network in transmission line protection is demonstrated in this paper. The method applies the power system via voltage and current signals to learn the hidden relationship presented in the input patterns. It is experiential that the proposed technique is competent to identify the particular fault direction more speedily. System simulations studied show that the proposed approach is able to distinguish the direction of a fault on a transmission line swiftly and correctly, therefore suitable for the real-time purposes.

Hybrid Optimization of Emission and Economic Dispatch by the Sigmoid Decreasing Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Optimization

This paper present an efficient and reliable technique of optimization which combined fuel cost economic optimization and emission dispatch using the Sigmoid Decreasing Inertia Weight Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO) to reduce the cost of fuel and pollutants resulting from fuel combustion by keeping the output of generators, bus voltages, shunt capacitors and transformer tap settings within the security boundary. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been demonstrated on IEEE 30-bus system with six generating units. The results clearly show that the proposed algorithm gives better and faster speed convergence then linearly decreasing inertia weight.

Enhanced Parallel-Connected Comb Filter Method for Multiple Pitch Estimation

This paper presents an improvement method of the multiple pitch estimation algorithm using comb filters. Conventionally the pitch was estimated by using parallel -connected comb filters method (PCF). However, PCF has problems which often fail in the pitch estimation when there is the fundamental frequency of higher tone near harmonics of lower tone. Therefore the estimation is assigned to a wrong note when shared frequencies happen. This issue often occurs in estimating octave 3 or more. Proposed method, for solving the problem, estimates the pitch with every harmonic instead of every octave. As a result, our method reaches the accuracy of more than 80%.

A Voltage Based Maximum Power Point Tracker for Low Power and Low Cost Photovoltaic Applications

This paper describes the design of a voltage based maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Of the various MPPT methods, the voltage based method is considered to be the simplest and cost effective. The major disadvantage of this method is that the PV array is disconnected from the load for the sampling of its open circuit voltage, which inevitably results in power loss. Another disadvantage, in case of rapid irradiance variation, is that if the duration between two successive samplings, called the sampling period, is too long there is a considerable loss. This is because the output voltage of the PV array follows the unchanged reference during one sampling period. Once a maximum power point (MPP) is tracked and a change in irradiation occurs between two successive samplings, then the new MPP is not tracked until the next sampling of the PV array voltage. This paper proposes an MPPT circuit in which the sampling interval of the PV array voltage, and the sampling period have been shortened. The sample and hold circuit has also been simplified. The proposed circuit does not utilize a microcontroller or a digital signal processor and is thus suitable for low cost and low power applications.

Control of a DC Servomotor Using Fuzzy Logic Sliding Mode Model Following Controller

A DC servomotor position control system using a Fuzzy Logic Sliding mode Model Following Control or FLSMFC approach is presented. The FLSMFC structure consists of an integrator and variable structure system. The integral control is introduced into it in order to eliminated steady state error due to step and ramp command inputs and improve control precision, while the fuzzy control would maintain the insensitivity to parameter variation and disturbances. The FLSMFC strategy is implemented and applied to a position control of a DC servomotor drives. Experimental results indicated that FLSMFC system performance with respect to the sensitivity to parameter variations is greatly reduced. Also, excellent control effects and avoids the chattering phenomenon.

Neural Networks and Particle Swarm Optimization Based MPPT for Small Wind Power Generator

This paper proposes the method combining artificial neural network (ANN) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to implement the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by controlling the rotor speed of the wind generator. First, the measurements of wind speed, rotor speed of wind power generator and output power of wind power generator are applied to train artificial neural network and to estimate the wind speed. Second, the method mentioned above is applied to estimate and control the optimal rotor speed of the wind turbine so as to output the maximum power. Finally, the result reveals that the control system discussed in this paper extracts the maximum output power of wind generator within the short duration even in the conditions of wind speed and load impedance variation.

Network Application Identification Based on Communication Characteristics of Application Messages

A person-to-person information sharing is easily realized by P2P networks in which servers are not essential. Leakage of information, which are caused by malicious accesses for P2P networks, has become a new social issues. To prevent information leakage, it is necessary to detect and block traffics of P2P software. Since some P2P softwares can spoof port numbers, it is difficult to detect the traffics sent from P2P softwares by using port numbers. It is more difficult to devise effective countermeasures for detecting the software because their protocol are not public. In this paper, a discriminating method of network applications based on communication characteristics of application messages without port numbers is proposed. The proposed method is based on an assumption that there can be some rules about time intervals to transmit messages in application layer and the number of necessary packets to send one message. By extracting the rule from network traffic, the proposed method can discriminate applications without port numbers.

Power System Contingency Analysis Using Multiagent Systems

The demand of the energy management systems (EMS) set forth by modern power systems requires fast energy management systems. Contingency analysis is among the functions in EMS which is time consuming. In order to handle this limitation, this paper introduces agent based technology in the contingency analysis. The main function of agents is to speed up the performance. Negotiations process in decision making is explained and the issue set forth is the minimization of the operating costs. The IEEE 14 bus system and its line outage have been used in the research and simulation results are presented.

Contourlet versus Wavelet Transform for a Robust Digital Image Watermarking Technique

In this paper, a watermarking algorithm that uses the wavelet transform with Multiple Description Coding (MDC) and Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) concepts is introduced. Also, the paper investigates the role of Contourlet Transform (CT) versus Wavelet Transform (WT) in providing robust image watermarking. Two measures are utilized in the comparison between the waveletbased and the contourlet-based methods; Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC). Experimental results reveal that the introduced algorithm is robust against different attacks and has good results compared to the contourlet-based algorithm.

Two Stage Control Method Using a Disturbance Observer and a Kalman Filter

This paper describes the two stage control using a disturbance observer and a Kalman filter. The system feedback uses the estimated state when it controls the speed. After the change-over point, its feedback uses the controlled plant output when it controls the position. To change the system continually, a change-over point has to be determined pertinently, and the controlled plant input has to be adjusted by the addition of the appropriate value. The proposed method has noise-reduction effect. It changes the system continually, even if the controlled plant identification has the error. Although the conventional method needs a speed sensor, the proposed method does not need it. The proposed method has a superior robustness compared with the conventional two stage control.

An ACO Based Algorithm for Distribution Networks Including Dispersed Generations

With Power system movement toward restructuring along with factors such as life environment pollution, problems of transmission expansion and with advancement in construction technology of small generation units, it is expected that small units like wind turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic, ... that most of the time connect to the distribution networks play a very essential role in electric power industry. With increase in developing usage of small generation units, management of distribution networks should be reviewed. The target of this paper is to present a new method for optimal management of active and reactive power in distribution networks with regard to costs pertaining to various types of dispersed generations, capacitors and cost of electric energy achieved from network. In other words, in this method it-s endeavored to select optimal sources of active and reactive power generation and controlling equipments such as dispersed generations, capacitors, under load tapchanger transformers and substations in a way that firstly costs in relation to them are minimized and secondly technical and physical constraints are regarded. Because the optimal management of distribution networks is an optimization problem with continuous and discrete variables, the new evolutionary method based on Ant Colony Algorithm has been applied. The simulation results of the method tested on two cases containing 23 and 34 buses exist and will be shown at later sections.