Abstract: A comparison of activity and stability of the as-formed
Pt/C, Pt-Co and Pt-Pd/C electrocatalysts, prepared by a combined
approach of impregnation and seeding, was performed. According to
the activity test in a single Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel
cell, the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) activity of the Pt-M/C
electrocatalyst was slightly lower than that of Pt/C. The j0.9 V and
E10 mA/cm2 of the as-prepared electrocatalysts increased in the order of
Pt/C > Pt-Co/C > Pt-Pd/C. However, in the medium-to-high current
density region, Pt-Pd/C exhibited the best performance. With regard to
their stability in a 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte solution, the
electrochemical surface area decreased as the number of rounds of
repetitive potential cycling increased due to the dissolution of the
metals within the catalyst structure. For long-term measurement, Pt-
Pd/C was the most stable than the other three electrocatalysts.
Abstract: This work studies the effect of chemical composition
on the activity and selectivity of γ–alumina supported CuO/
MnO2/Cr2O3 catalysts toward deep oxidation of CO, dimethyl ether
(DME) and methanol. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation
of the support with an aqueous solution of copper nitrate, manganese
nitrate and CrO3 under different conditions. Thermal, XRD and TPR
analysis were performed. The catalytic measurements of single
compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment
with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Flow-line
equipment with an adiabatic reactor for simultaneous oxidation of all
compounds under the conditions that mimic closely the industrial
ones was used. The reactant and product gases were analyzed by
means of on-line gas chromatographs.
On the basis of XRD analysis it can be concluded that the active
component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Cr/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at
least six compounds – CuO, Cr2O3, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4,
Cu1.5Cr1.5O4 and CuCr2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Cr molar ratio.
Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this
influence being quite variable with regards to the different processes.
The rate of CO oxidation rapidly decrease with increasing of
chromium content in the active component while for the DME was
observed the reverse trend. It was concluded that the best
compromise are the catalysts with Cu/(Mn + Cr) molar ratio 1:5 and
Mn/Cr molar ratio from 1:3 to 1:4.
Abstract: Currently, continuous two-phase decanter process
used for olive oil production is the more internationally widespread.
The wastewaters generated from this industry (OMW) are a real
environmental problem because of its high organic load. Among
proposed treatments for these wastewaters, advanced oxidation
technologies (Fenton, ozone, photoFenton, etc.) are the most
favourable. The direct application of these processes is somewhat
expensive. Therefore, the application of a previous stage based on a
flocculation-sedimentation operation is of high importance. In this
research five commercial flocculants (three cationic, and two anionic)
have been used to achieve the separation of phases (liquid clarifiedsludge).
For each flocculant, different concentrations (0-1000 mg/L)
have been studied. In these experiments, sludge volume formed and
the final water quality were determined. The final removal
percentages of total phenols (11.3-25.1%), COD (5.6-20.4%), total
carbon (2.3-26.5%), total organic carbon (1.50-23.8%), total nitrogen
(1.45-24.8%), and turbidity (27.9-61.4%) were determined. The
variation on electric conductivity reduction percentage (1-8%) was
also determined. Finally, the best flocculants with highest removal
percentages have been determined (QG2001 and Flocudex CS49).
Abstract: Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of
a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around
the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics,
radiation, photons respectively, should be absorbed by the electron.
Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of
rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of
photons absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new
energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton,
is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that
radiation, photons respectively, have mass and negative electrostatic
charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments
which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion,
photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.
Abstract: HZSM-5 zeolites modified by iron and phosphorus
were applied in catalytic cracking of butene. N2 adsorption and
NH3-TPD were employed to measure the structure and acidity of
catalysts. The results indicate that increasing phosphorus loading
decreased surface area, pore volume and strong acidity of catalysts.
The addition of phosphorus significantly decreased butene conversion
and promoted propylene selectivity. The catalytic performance of
catalyst was strongly dependent on the reaction conditions.
Appropriate reaction conditions could suppress side reactions and
enhance propylene selectivity.
Abstract: When printing a plate (or dish) by an FDM 3D printer,
the process normally requires support material, which causes several
problems. This paper proposes a method for forming thin plates
without using wasteful support material. This method requires several
extraordinary parameter values when slicing plates. The experiments
show that the plates can, for the most part, be successfully formed
using a conventional slicer and a 3D printer; however, seams between
layers spoil them and the quality of printed objects strongly depends
on the slicer.
Abstract: Biomass briquette gasification is regarded as a
promising route for efficient briquette use in energy generation, fuels
and other useful chemicals. However, previous research has been
focused on briquette gasification in fixed bed gasifiers such as
updraft and downdraft gasifiers. Fluidised bed gasifier has the
potential to be effectively sized to medium or large scale. This study
investigated the use of fuel briquettes produced from blends of rice
husks and corn cobs biomass, in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier.
The study adopted a combination of numerical equations and Aspen
Plus simulation software, to predict the product gas (syngas)
composition base on briquette density and biomass composition
(blend ratio of rice husks to corn cobs). The Aspen Plus model was
based on an experimentally validated model from the literature. The
results based on a briquette size 32 mm diameter and relaxed density
range of 500 to 650kg/m3, indicated that fluidisation air required in
the gasifier increased with increase in briquette density, and the
fluidisation air showed to be the controlling factor compared with the
actual air required for gasification of the biomass briquettes. The
mass flowrate of CO2 in the predicted syngas composition increased
with an increase in air flow, in the gasifier, while CO decreased and
H2 was almost constant. The ratio of H2 to CO for various blends of
rice husks and corn cobs did not significantly change at the designed
process air, but a significant difference of 1.0 was observed between
10/90 and 90/10 % blend of rice husks and corn cobs.
Abstract: It is the worldwide problem that the recycled PVB is
not recycled and it is wildly stored in landfills. However, PVB has
similar chemical properties such as PVC. Moreover, both of these
polymers are plasticized. Therefore, the study of thermal properties
of plasticized PVC and the recycled PVB obtained by recycling of
windshields is carried out. This work has done in order to find nondegradable
processing conditions applicable for both polymers.
Tested PVC contained 38% of plasticizer diisononyl phthalate
(DINP) and PVB was plasticized with 28% of triethylene glycol,
bis(2-ethylhexanoate) (3GO). The thermal and thermo-oxidative
decomposition of both vinyl polymers are compared by calorimetric
analysis and by tensile strength analysis.
Abstract: Copper (I) oxide microparticles with the morphology
of cubic and hollow sphere were synthesized with the assistance of
surfactant as the shape controller. Both particles were then subjected
to study the catalytic activity and observed the results of shape effects
of catalysts on rate of catalytic reaction. The decolorizing reaction of
crystal violet and sodium hydroxide was chosen and measured the
decreasing of reactant with respect to times using spectrophotometer.
The result revealed that morphology of crystal had no effect on the
catalytic activity for crystal violet reaction but contributed to total
surface area predominantly.
Abstract: WO3/SiO2 catalysts were modified by an ion exchange
method with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide solution. The
performance of the modified catalysts was tested in the metathesis of
ethylene and trans-2-butene to propylene. During ion exchange,
sodium and potassium ions played different roles. Sodium modified
catalysts revealed constant trans-2-butene conversion and propylene
selectivity when the concentrations of sodium in the solution were
varied. In contrast, potassium modified catalysts showed reduction of
the conversion and increase of the selectivity. From these results,
potassium hydroxide may affect the transformation of tungsten oxide
active species, resulting in the decrease in conversion whereas
sodium hydroxide did not. Moreover, the modification of catalysts by
this method improved the catalyst stability by lowering the amount of
coke deposited on the catalyst surface.
Abstract: Potassium borates, which are widely used in welding
and metal refining industry, as a lubricating oil additive, cement
additive, fiberglass additive and insulation compound, are one of the
important groups of borate minerals. In this study the production of a
potassium borate mineral via hydrothermal method is aimed. The
potassium source of potassium nitrate (KNO3) was used along with a
sodium source of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and boron source of
boric acid (H3BO3). The constant parameters of reaction temperature
and reaction time were determined as 80°C and 1 h, respectively. The
molar ratios of 1:1:3 (as KNO3:NaOH:H3BO3), 1:1:4, 1:1:5, 1:1:6
and 1:1:7 were used. Following the synthesis the identifications of
the produced products were conducted by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD),
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman
Spectroscopy. The results of the experiments and analysis showed in
the ratio of 1:1:6, the Santite mineral with powder diffraction file
number (pdf no.) of 01-072-1688, which is known as potassium
pentaborate (KB5O8·4H2O) was synthesized as best.
Abstract: The effect of partially substitution of magnetic
impurity Fe for Cu to the magnetic and transport properties in
electron-doped superconducting cuprates of
Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ (ECCFO) with y = 0, 0.010, 0.020, and
0.050 has been studied, in order to investigate the mechanism of
magnetic and transport properties of ECCFO in normal-state.
Magnetic properties are investigated by DC magnetic-susceptibility
measurements that carried out at low temperatures down to 2 K using a
standard SQUID magnetometer in a magnetic field of 5 Oe on field
cooling. Transport properties addressed to electron mobility, are
extracted from radius of electron localization calculated from
temperature dependence of resistivity. For y = 0, temperature
dependence of dc magnetic-susceptibility (χ) indicated the change of
magnetic behavior from paramagnetic to diamagnetic below 15 K.
Above 15 K, all samples show paramagnetic behavior with the values
of magnetic moment in every volume unit increased with increasing y.
Electron mobility decreased with increasing y.
Abstract: The comprehensive CFD models have been used to
represent and study the heterogeneous combustion of biomass. In the
present work, the operation of a global flue gas circuit in the sugarcane
bagasse combustion, from wind boxes below primary air grate
supply, passing by bagasse insertion in swirl burners and boiler
furnace, to boiler bank outlet is simulated. It uses five different
meshes representing each part of this system located in sequence:
wind boxes and grate, boiler furnace, swirl burners, superheaters and
boiler bank. The model considers turbulence using standard k-ε,
combustion using EDM, radiation heat transfer using DTM with 16
ray directions and bagasse particle tracking represented by Schiller-
Naumann model. The results showed good agreement with expected
behavior found in literature and equipment design. The more detailed
results view in separated parts of flue gas system allows observing
some flow behaviors that cannot be represented by usual
simplifications like bagasse supply under homogeneous axial and
rotational vectors and others that can be represented using new
considerations like the representation of 26 thousand grate orifices by
144 rectangular inlets.
Abstract: Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated
cutting tool has excellent cutting performance, it is the most ideal tool
for the processing of nonferrous metals and alloys, composites,
nonmetallic materials and other difficult-to-machine materials
efficiently and accurately. Depositing CVD diamond coating on the
cemented carbide with high cobalt content can improve its toughness
and strength, therefore, it is very important to research on the
preparation technology and cutting properties of CVD diamond coated
cemented carbide cutting tool with high cobalt content. The
preparation technology of boron-doped diamond (BDD) coating has
been studied and the coated drills were prepared. BDD coating were
deposited on the drills by using the optimized parameters and the SEM
results show that there are no cracks or collapses in the coating.
Cutting tests with the prepared drills against the silumin and aluminum
base printed circuit board (PCB) have been studied. The results show
that the wear amount of the coated drill is small and the machined
surface has a better precision. The coating does not come off during
the test, which shows good adhesion and cutting performance of the