Abstract: The pulp and paper mill effluent is one of the high
polluting effluent amongst the effluents obtained from polluting
industries. All the available methods for treatment of pulp and paper
mill effluent have certain drawbacks. The coagulation is one of the
cheapest process for treatment of various organic effluents. Thus, the
removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour of paper mill
effluent is studied using coagulation process. The batch coagulation
process was performed using various coagulants like: aluminium
chloride, poly aluminium chloride and copper sulphate. The initial
pH of the effluent (Coagulation pH) has tremendous effect on COD
and colour removal. Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) as coagulant
reduced COD to 84 % and 92 % of colour was removed at an
optimum pH 5 and coagulant dose of 8 ml l-1. With aluminium
chloride at an optimum pH = 4 and coagulant dose of 5 g l-1, 74 %
COD and 86 % colour removal were observed. The results using
copper sulphate as coagulant (a less commercial coagulant) were
encouraging. At an optimum pH 6 and mass loading of 5 g l-1, 76 %
COD reduction and 78 % colour reduction were obtained. It was also
observed that after addition of coagulant, the pH of the effluent
decreases. The decrease in pH was highest for AlCl3, which was
followed by PAC and CuSO4. Significant amount of COD reductions
was obtained by coagulation process. Since the coagulation process
is the first stage for treatment of effluent and some of the coagulant
cations usually remain in the treated effluents. Thus, cation like
copper may be one of the good catalyst for second stage of treatment
process like wet oxidation. The copper has been found to be good
oxidation catalyst then iron and aluminum.
Abstract: Production of biogas from bakery waste was enhanced
by additional bacterial cell. This study was divided into 2 steps. First
step, grease waste from bakery industry-s grease trap was initially
degraded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The concentration of byproduct,
especially glycerol, was determined and found that glycerol
concentration increased from 12.83% to 48.10%. Secondary step, 3
biodigesters were set up in 3 different substrates: non-degraded waste
as substrate in first biodigester, degraded waste as substrate in
secondary biodigester, and degraded waste mixed with swine manure
in ratio 1:1 as substrate in third biodigester. The highest
concentration of biogas was found in third biodigester that was
44.33% of methane and 63.71% of carbon dioxide. The lower
concentration at 24.90% of methane and 18.98% of carbon dioxide
was exhibited in secondary biodigester whereas the lowest was found
in non-degraded waste biodigester. It was demonstrated that the
biogas production was greatly increased with the initial grease waste
degradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Abstract: Titanium dioxide coatings were deposited by utilizing
atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) system. The agglomerated nanopowder
and different spraying parameters were used to determine
their influences on the microstructure surface feature and photoabsorption
of the coatings. The microstructure of as-sprayed TiO2
coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Surface characteristics were investigated by Fourier Transform
Infrared (FT-IR). The photo absorption was determined by UV-VIS
spectrophotometer. It is found that the spray parameters have an
influence on the microstructure, surface feature and photo-absorption
of the TiO2 coatings.
Abstract: The Bulgarian natural expanded mineral obtained from Bentonite AD perlite (A deposit of "The Broken Mountain" for perlite mining, near by the village of Vodenicharsko, in the municipality of Djebel), was loaded with silver (as ion form - Ag+ 2 and 5 wt% by the incipient wetness impregnation method), and as atomic silver - Ag0 using Tollen-s reagent (silver mirror reaction). Some physicochemical characterization of the samples are provided via: DC arc-AES, XRD, DR-IR and UV-VIS. The aim of this work was to obtain and test the silver-loaded catalyst for ozone decomposition. So the samples loaded with atomic silver show ca. 80% conversion of ozone 20 minutes after the reaction start. Then conversion decreases to ca. 20 % but stay stable during the prolongation of time.
Abstract: Some of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
are the strongest known carcinogens compounds; the majority of
them are mostly produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil
fuels; Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbon (PAH) where diesel emission is one of the main sources
of such compounds available in the ambient air. There is a big
concern about the increasing concentration of PAHs in the
environment. Researchers are trying to explore optimal methods to
reduce those pollutants and improve the quality of air. Water blended
fuel is one of the possible approaches to reduce emission of PAHs
from the combustion of diesel in urban and domestic vehicles. In this
work a modeling study was conducted using CHEMKIN-PRO
software to simulate spray combustion at similar diesel engine
conditions. Surrogate fuel of (80 % n-heptane and 20 % toluene) was
used due to detailed kinetic and thermodynamic data needed for
modeling is available for this kind of fuel but not available for diesel.
An emulsified fuel with 3, 5, 8, 10 and 20 % water by volume is used
as an engine feed for this study. The modeling results show that water
has a significant effect on reducing engine soot and PAHs precursors
formation up to certain extent.
Abstract: This paper presents the experimental results of salt fog ageing test of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulator based on IEC 61109. Four types of HTV silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were tested continuously 1000
Abstract: Extraction of lactic acid from aqueous solution using n-butanol as an extractant was studied. Effect of mixing time, pH of the aqueous solution, initial lactic acid concentration, and volume ratio between the organic and the aqueous phase were investigated. Distribution coefficient and degree of lactic acid extraction was found to increase when the pH of aqueous solution was decreased. The pH Effect was substantially pronounced at pH of the aqueous solution less than 1. Initial lactic acid concentration and organic-toaqueous volume ratio appeared to have positive effect on the distribution coefficient and the degree of extraction. Due to the nature of n-butanol that is partially miscible in water, incorporation of aqueous solution into organic phase was observed in the extraction with large organic-to-aqueous volume ratio.
Abstract: Wood pyrolysis for Casuarina glauca, Casuarina cunninghamiana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca was made at 450°C with 2.5°C/min. in a flowing N2-atmosphere. The Eucalyptus genus wood gave higher values of specific gravity, ash , total extractives, lignin, N2-liquid trap distillate (NLTD) and water trap distillate (WSP) than those for Casuarina genus. The GHC of NLTD was higher for Casuarina genus than that for Eucalyptus genus with the highest value for Casuarina cunninghamiana. Guiacol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol and syringol were observed in the NLTD of all the four wood species reflecting their parent hardwood lignin origin. Eucalyptus camaldulensis wood had the highest lignin content (28.89%) and was pyrolyzed to the highest values of phenolics (73.01%), guaiacol (11.2%) and syringol (32.28%) contents in methylene chloride fraction (MCF) of NLTD. Accordingly, recoveries of syringol and guaiacol may become economically attractive from Eucalyptus camaldulensis.
Abstract: Biodiesel production with used frying by
transesterification reaction with methanol, using a commercial
kaolinite thermally-activated solid acid catalyst was investigated.
The surface area, the average pore diameter and pore volume of the
kaolinite catalyst were 10 m2/g, 13.0 nm and 30 mm3/g, respectively.
The optimal conditions for the transesterification reaction were
determined to be oil/methanol, in a molar ratio 1:31, temperature 160
ºC and catalyst concentration of 3% (w/w). The yield of fatty acids
methyl esters (FAME) was 92.4% after 2 h of reaction. This method
of preparation of biodiesel can be a positive alternative for utilizing
used frying corn oil for feedstock of biodiesel combined with the
Abstract: Anaerobic Digestion has become a promising
technology for biological transformation of organic fraction of the
municipal solid wastes (MSW). In order to represent the kinetic
behavior of such biological process and thereby to design a reactor
system, development of a mathematical model is essential.
Addressing this issue, a simplistic mathematical model has been
developed for anaerobic digestion of MSW in a continuous flow
reactor unit under homogeneous steady state condition. Upon
simulated hydrolysis, the kinetics of biomass growth and substrate
utilization rate are assumed to follow first order reaction kinetics.
Simulation of this model has been conducted by studying sensitivity
of various process variables. The model was simulated using typical
kinetic data of anaerobic digestion MSW and typical MSW
characteristics of Kolkata. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and
solid retention time (SRT) time were mainly estimated by varying
different model parameters like efficiency of reactor, influent
substrate concentration and biomass concentration. Consequently,
design table and charts have also been prepared for ready use in the
actual plant operation.
Abstract: Synthesis gas manufacturing by steam reforming of hydrocarbons is an important industrial process. High endothermic nature of the process makes it one of the most cost and heat intensive processes. In the present work, composite effect of different inert gases on synthesis gas yield, feed gas conversion and temperature distribution along the reactor length has been studied using a heterogeneous model. Mathematical model was developed as a first stage and validated against the existing process models. With the addition of inert gases, a higher yield of synthesis gas is observed. Simultaneously the rector outlet temperature drops to as low as 810 K. It was found that Xenon gives the highest yield and conversion while Helium gives the lowest temperature. Using Xenon inert gas 20 percent reduction in outlet temperature was observed compared to traditional case.
Abstract: Solution for the complete removal of carbon
monoxide from the exhaust gases still poses a challenge to the
researchers and this problem is still under development. Modeling for
reduction of carbon monoxide is carried out using heterogeneous
reaction using low cost non-noble metal based catalysts for the
purpose of controlling emissions released to the atmosphere. A
simple one-dimensional model was developed for the monolith using
hopcalite catalyst. The converter is assumed to be an adiabatic
monolith operating under warm-up conditions. The effect of inlet gas
temperatures and catalyst loading on carbon monoxide reduction
during cold start period in the converter is analysed.
Abstract: The effects of different parameters on the
hydrodynamics of trickle bed reactors were discussed for Newtonian
and non-Newtonian foaming systems. The varying parameters are
varying liquid velocities, gas flow velocities and surface tension. The
range for gas velocity is particularly large, thanks to the use of dense
gas to simulate very high pressure conditions. This data bank has
been used to compare the prediction accuracy of the different
trendlines and transition points from the literature. More than 240
experimental points for the trickle flow (GCF) and foaming pulsing
flow (PF/FPF) regime were obtained for present study.
Hydrodynamic characteristics involving dynamic liquid saturation
significantly influenced by gas and liquid flow rates. For 15 and 30
ppm air-aqueous surfactant solutions, dynamic liquid saturation
decreases with higher liquid and gas flow rates considerably in high
interaction regime. With decrease in surface tension i.e. for 45 and 60
ppm air-aqueous surfactant systems, effect was more pronounced
with decreases dynamic liquid saturation very sharply during regime
transition significantly at both low liquid and gas flow rates.
Abstract: A mathematical model of the surface roughness
has been developed by using response surface methodology
(RSM) in grinding of AISI D2 cold work tool steels. Analysis
of variance (ANOVA) was used to check the validity of the
model. Low and high value for work speed and feed rate are
decided from design of experiment. The influences of all
machining parameters on surface roughness have been
analyzed based on the developed mathematical model. The
developed prediction equation shows that both the feed rate
and work speed are the most important factor that influences
the surface roughness. The surface roughness was found to be
the lowers with the used of low feed rate and low work speed.
Accuracy of the best model was proved with the testing data.
Abstract: This paper presents a comparative study on
Vanadyl Phthalocyanine (VOPc) thin films deposited by thermal
evaporation and spin coating techniques. The samples
were prepared on cleaned glass substrates and annealed at
various temperatures ranging form 95oC to 155oC. To obtain
the morphological and structural properties of VOPc thin
films, X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and atomic force
microscopy (AFM) have been implied. The AFM topographic
images show a very slight difference in the thermally grown
films, before and after annealing, however best results are
achieved for the spin-cast film annealed at 125oC. The XRD
spectra show no existence of the sharp peaks, suggesting the
material to be amorphous. The humps in the XRD patterns
indicate the presence of some crystallites.
Abstract: Optimization study of the diesters biolubricant oleyl 9(12)-hydroxy-10(13)-oleioxy-12(9)-octadecanoate (OLHYOOT) was synthesized in the presence of sulfuric acid (SA) as catalyst has been done. Optimum conditions of the experiment to obtain high yield% of OLHYOOT were predicted at ratio of OL/HYOOA of 1:1 g/g, ratio of SA/HYOOA of 0.20:1 g/g, reaction temperature 110 °C and 4.5 h of reaction time. At this condition, the Yield% of OLHYOOT was 88.7. Disappearance of carboxylic acid (C=O) peak has observed by FTIR with appearance ester (C=O) at 1738 cm-1. 1H NMR spectra analyses confirmed the result of OLHYOOT with appearance ester (-CHOCOR) at 4.05ppm and also the 13C-NMR confirmed the result with appearance ester (C=O) peak at 173.93ppm.
Abstract: The effects of enzyme action and heat pretreatment on oil extraction yield from sunflower kernels were analysed using hexane extraction with Soxhlet, and aqueous extraction with incubator shaker. Ground kernels of raw and heat treated kernels, each with and without Viscozyme treatment were used. Microscopic images of the kernels were taken to analyse the visible effects of each treatment on the cotyledon cell structure of the kernels. Heat pretreated kernels before both extraction processes produced enhanced oil extraction yields than the control, with steam explosion the most efficient. In hexane extraction, applying a combination of steam explosion and Viscozyme treatments to the kernels before the extraction gave the maximum oil extractable in 1 hour; while for aqueous extraction, raw kernels treated with Viscozyme gave the highest oil extraction yield. Remarkable cotyledon cell disruption was evident in kernels treated with Viscozyme; whereas steam explosion and conventional heat treated kernels had similar effects.
Abstract: In this paper, the experimental design of using the
Taguchi method is employed to optimize the processing parameters in
the plasma arc surface hardening process. The processing parameters
evaluated are arc current, scanning velocity and carbon content of
steel. In addition, other significant effects such as the relation between
processing parameters are also investigated. An orthogonal array,
signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are
employed to investigate the effects of these processing parameters.
Through this study, not only the hardened depth increased and surface
roughness improved, but also the parameters that significantly affect
the hardening performance are identified. Experimental results are
provided to verify the effectiveness of this approach.