Steady State Simulation and Experimental Study of an Ethane Recovery Unit in an Iranian Natural Gas Refinery

The production and consumption of natural gas is on the rise throughout the world as a result of its wide availability, ease of transportation, use and clean-burning characteristics. The chief use of ethane is in the chemical industry in the production of Ethene (ethylene) by steam cracking. In this simulation, obtained ethane recovery percent based on Gas sub-cooled process (GSP) is 99.9 by mole that is included 32.1% by using de-methanizer column and 67.8% by de-ethanizer tower. The outstanding feature of this process is the novel split-vapor concept that employs to generate reflux for de-methanizer column. Remain amount of ethane in export gas cause rise in gross heating value up to 36.66 MJ/Nm3 in order to use in industrial and household consumptions.

Comparison of The Fertilizer Properties of Ash Fractions from Medium-Sized (32 MW) and Small-Sized (6 MW) Municipal District Heating Plants

Due to the low heavy metal concentrations, the bottom ash from a 32 MW municipal district heating plant was determined to be a potential forest fertilizer as such. However, additional Ca would be needed, because its Ca concentration of 1.9- % (d.w.) was lower than the statutory Finnish minimum limit value of 6.0-% (d.w.) for Ca in forest fertilizer. Due to the elevated As concentration (53.0 mg/kg; d.w.) in the fly ash from the 32 MW municipal district heating plant, and Cr concentration (620 mg/kg; d.w.) in the ash fraction (i.e. mixture of the bottom ash and fly ash) from the 6 MW municipal district heating plant, which exceed the limit values of 30 mg/kg (d.w.) and 300 mg/kg (d.w.) for As and Cr, respectively, these residues are not suitable as forest fertilizers. Although these ash fractions cannot be used as a forest fertilizer as such, they can be used for the landscaping of landfills or in industrial and other areas that are closed to the public. However, an environmental permit is then needed.

Application of Formyl-TIPPCu (II) for Temperature and Light Sensing

Effect of temperature and light was investigated on a thin film of organic semiconductor formyl-TIPPCu(II) deposited on a glass substrate with preliminary evaporated gold electrodes. The electrical capacitance and resistance of the fabricated device were evaluated under the effect of temperature and light. The relative capacitance of the fabricated sensor increased by 4.3 times by rising temperature from 27 to 1870C, while under illumination up to 25000 lx, the capacitance of the Au/formyl-TIPPCu(II)/Au photo capacitive sensor increased continuously by 13.2 times as compared to dark conditions.

Statistical Optimization of Process Variables for Direct Fermentation of 226 White Rose Tapioca Stem to Ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum

Direct fermentation of 226 white rose tapioca stem to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum was studied in a batch reactor. Fermentation of ethanol can be achieved by sequential pretreatment using dilute acid and dilute alkali solutions using 100 mesh tapioca stem particles. The quantitative effects of substrate concentration, pH and temperature on ethanol concentration were optimized using a full factorial central composite design experiment. The optimum process conditions were then obtained using response surface methodology. The quadratic model indicated that substrate concentration of 33g/l, pH 5.52 and a temperature of 30.13oC were found to be optimum for maximum ethanol concentration of 8.64g/l. The predicted optimum process conditions obtained using response surface methodology was verified through confirmatory experiments. Leudeking-piret model was used to study the product formation kinetics for the production of ethanol and the model parameters were evaluated using experimental data.

Vacuum Membrane Distillation for Desalination of Ground Water by using Flat Sheet Membrane

The possibility of producing drinking water from brackish ground water using Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process was studied. It is a rising technology for seawater or brine desalination process. The process simply consists of a flat sheet hydrophobic micro porous PTFE membrane and diaphragm vacuum pump without a condenser for the water recovery or trap. In this work, VMD performance was investigated for aqueous NaCl solution and natural ground water. The influence of operational parameters such as feed flow rate (30 to 55 l/h), feed temperature (313 to 333 K), feed salt concentration (5000 to 7000 mg/l) and permeate pressure (1.5 to 6 kPa) on the membrane distillation (MD) permeation flux have been investigated. The maximum flux reached to 28.34 kg/m2 h at feed temperature, 333 K; vacuum pressure, 1.5 kPa; feed flow rate, 55 l/h and feed salt concentration, 7000 mg/l. The negligible effects in the reduction of permeate flux found over 150 h experimental run for salt water. But for the natural ground water application over 75 h, scale deposits observed on the membrane surface and 29% reduction in the permeate flux over 75 h. This reduction can be eliminated by acidification of feed water. Hence, promote the research attention in apply of VMD for the ground water purification over today-s conventional RO operation.

Investigation and Evalution of Swelling Kinetics Related to Biocopolymers Based on CMC poly(AA-co BuMC)

In this paper, we have focused on study of swelling kinetics and salt-sensitivity behavior of a superabsorbing hydrogel based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and acrylic acid and 2- Buthyl methacrylate. The swelling kinetics of the hydrogels with various particle sizes was preliminary investigated as well. The swelling of the hydrogel showed a second order kinetics of swelling in water. In addition, swelling measurements of the synthesized hydrogels in various chloride salt solutions was measured. Results indicated that a swelling-loss with an increase in the ionic strength of the salt solutions.

Biomethanation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by Membrane Anaerobic System (MAS) using POME as a Substrate

The direct discharge of palm oil mill effluent (POME) wastewater causes serious environmental pollution due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Traditional ways for POME treatment have both economical and environmental disadvantages. In this study, a membrane anaerobic system (MAS) was used as an alternative, cost effective method for treating POME. Six steady states were attained as a part of a kinetic study that considered concentration ranges of 8,220 to 15,400 mg/l for mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and 6,329 to 13,244 mg/l for mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS). Kinetic equations from Monod, Contois and Chen & Hashimoto were employed to describe the kinetics of POME treatment at organic loading rates ranging from 2 to 13 kg COD/m3/d. throughout the experiment, the removal efficiency of COD was from 94.8 to 96.5% with hydraulic retention time, HRT from 400.6 to 5.7 days. The growth yield coefficient, Y was found to be 0.62gVSS/g COD the specific microorganism decay rate was 0.21 d-1 and the methane gas yield production rate was between 0.25 l/g COD/d and 0.58 l/g COD/d. Steady state influent COD concentrations increased from 18,302 mg/l in the first steady state to 43,500 mg/l in the sixth steady state. The minimum solids retention time, which was obtained from the three kinetic models ranged from 5 to 12.3 days. The k values were in the range of 0.35 – 0.519 g COD/ g VSS • d and values were between 0.26 and 0.379 d-1. The solids retention time (SRT) decreased from 800 days to 11.6 days. The complete treatment reduced the COD content to 2279 mg/l equivalent to a reduction of 94.8% reduction from the original.