Abstract: MOSCAPs of various combinations of Hafnium
oxide and Titanium oxide of varying thickness with Aluminum as gate electrode have been fabricated and electrically characterized.
The effects of voltage stress on the I-V characteristics for prolonged time durations have been studied and compared. Results showed
hard breakdown and negligible degradation of reliability under stress.
Abstract: Palm methyl ester (PME) is one of the alternative
biomass fuels to liquid fossil fuels. To investigate the combustion
characteristics of PME as an alternative fuel for gas turbines, combustion experiments using two types of burners under atmospheric
pressure were performed. One of the burners has a configuration
making strong non-premixed flame, whereas the other has a
configuration promoting prevaporization of fuel droplets. The results
show that the NOx emissions can be reduced by employing the latter burner without accumulation of soot when PME is used as a fuel. A
burner configuration promoting prevaporzation of fuel droplets is
recommended for PME.
Abstract: Four phenylurea herbicides (isoproturon, chlortoluron, diuron and linuron) were dissolved in different water matrices in order to study their chemical degradation by using UV radiation, ozone and some advanced oxidation processes (UV/H2O2, O3/H2O2, Fenton reagent and the photo- Fenton system). The waters used were: ultra-pure water, a commercial mineral water, a groundwater and a surface water taken from a reservoir. Elimination levels were established for each herbicide and for several global quality parameters, and a kinetic study was performed in order to determine basic kinetic parameters of each reaction between the target phenylureas and these oxidizing systems.
Abstract: A local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)
experiencing poor nitrification tracked down high level of
surfactants in the plant-s influent and effluent. The aims of this project were to assess the potential inhibitory effect of surfactants on activated sludge processes. The effect of the
presence of TergitolNP-9, TrigetolNP-7, Trigetol15-S-9,
dodecylbenzene sulphonate (SDBS) and sodium dodecyl
sulfate (SDS) on activated sludge oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and nitrification were assessed. The average concentration of non-ionic and anionic
surfactants in the influent to the local WWTP were 7 and 8.7 mg/L, respectively. Removal of 67% to 90% of the non-ionic and 93-99% of the anionic surfactants tested were measured. All surfactants tested showed inhibitory effects both on OUR
and nitrification. SDS incurred the lowest inhibition whereas
SDBS and NP-9 caused severe inhibition to OUR and
Nitrification. Activated sludge flocs sizes slightly decreased
after 3 hours contact with the surfactant present in the test.
The results obtained indicated that high concentrations of
surfactants are likely to have an adverse effect on the
performance of WWTPs utilizing activated sludge processes.
Abstract: The current study has investigated the ageing
phenomena of silica optical fibres in relation to water activity which might be accelerated when exposed to a supplementary energy, such as microwaves. A controlled stress by winding fibres onto accurate
diameter mandrel was applied. Taking into account that normally a
decrease in fibre strength is induced in time by chemical action of water, the effects of cumulative reagents such as: water, applied stress and supplementary energy (microwave) in some cases acted in
the opposite manner. The microwave effect as a structural relaxation
catalyst appears unexpected, even if the overall gain in fibre strength is not high, but the stress corrosion factor revealed significant
increase in certain simulation conditions.
Abstract: The present study examines the adsorption of phenol, 3-nitrophenol and dyes (methylene blue, alizarine yellow), from aqueous solutions onto a commercial activated carbon. Two different operations, semi-batch and continuous with reflux, were applied. The commercial activated carbon exhibits high adsorption abilities for phenol, 3-nitrophenol and dyes (methylene blue and alizarin yellow) from their aqueous solutions. The adsorption of all adsorbates after 1 h is higher by the continuous operation with reflux than by the semibatch operation. The adsorption of phenol is higher than that of 3-nitrophenol for both operations. Similarly, the adsorption of alizarin yellow is higher than that of methylene blue for both operations. The regenerated commercial activated carbon regains its adsorption ability due to the removal of the adsorbate from its pores during the regeneration.
Abstract: The use of amine mixtures employing
methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), monoethanolamine (MEA), and diethanolamine (DEA) have been investigated for a variety of cases
using a process simulation program called HYSYS. The results show that, at high pressures, amine mixtures have little or no advantage in the cases studied. As the pressure is lowered, it becomes more difficult for MDEA to meet residual gas requirements and mixtures can usually improve plant performance. Since the CO2 reaction rate
with the primary and secondary amines is much faster than with
MDEA, the addition of small amounts of primary or secondary amines to an MDEA based solution should greatly improve the overall reaction rate of CO2 with the amine solution. The addition of MEA caused the CO2 to be absorbed more strongly in the upper portion of the column than for MDEA along. On the other hand,
raising the concentration for MEA to 11%wt, CO2 is almost
completely absorbed in the lower portion of the column. The addition of MEA would be most advantageous.
Thus, in areas where MDEA cannot meet the residual gas
requirements, the use of amine mixtures can usually improve the plant
Abstract: Hot tear cracking and residual stress are two different consequences of thermal stress both of which can be considered as casting problem. The purpose of the present study is simulation of the effect of casting shape characteristic on hot tearing and residual stress. This study shows that the temperature range for simulation of hot tearing and residual stress are different. In this study, in order to study the development of thermal stress and to predict the hot tearing and residual stress of shaped casting, MAGMASOFT simulation program was used. The strategy of this research was the prediction of hot tear location using pinpointing hot spot and thermal stress concentration zones. The results shows that existing of stress concentration zone increases the hot tearing probability and consequently reduces the amount of remaining residual stress in casting parts.
Abstract: Considering non-ideal behavior of fluids and its effects on hydrodynamic and mass transfer in multiphase flow is very essential. Simulations were performed that takes into account the effects of mass transfer and mixture non-ideality on hydrodynamics reported by Irani et al. In this paper, by assuming the density of phases to be constant and Raullt-s law instead of using EOS and fugacity coefficient definition, respectively for both the liquid and gas phases, the importance of non-ideality effects on mass transfer and hydrodynamic behavior was studied. The results for a system of octane/propane (T=323 K, P =445 kpa) also indicated that the assumption of constant density in simulation had major role to diverse from experimental data. Furthermore, comparison between obtained results and the previous report indicated significant differences between experimental data and simulation results with more ideal assumptions.