Abstract: The spores of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana was evaluated for their compatibility with four surfactants; SDS (sodium dodyl sulphate) and CABS-65 (calcium alkyl benzene sulphonate), Tween 20 (polyethylene sorbitan monolaureate) and Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monoleate) at six different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10%). Incubated spores showed decrease in concentrations due to conversion of spores to hyphae. The maximum germination recorded in 72 h incubated spores varied with surfactant concentration at 49-68% (SDS), 39- 53% (CABS), 78-92% (Tween 80) and 80-92% (Tween 20), while the optimal surfactant concentration for spore germination was found to be 2.5-5%. The surfactant effect on spores was more pronounced with SDS and CABS-65, where significant deterioration and loss in viability of the incubated spores was observed. The effect of Tween 20 and Tween 80 were comparatively less inhibiting. The results of the study would help in surfactant selection for B. bassiana emulsion preparation.
Abstract: The essential oil of M. × piperita L. was formulated
into a topical gel. The prepared gel was characterized for its pH,
viscosity, spreadiblity, consistency and extrudiblity, while its stability
was evaluated under different temperature conditions. The prepared
M. × piperita oil gel was clear and transparent. The pH value of
developed gel was 6.6, while its viscosity was 1200 cP. Spreadability
and consistency of the M. × piperita oil gel was 10.7 g.cm/sec and 7
mm, respectively. The prepared gel showed good extrudiblity. During
the stability studies, no significant change in pH and viscosity as a
function of time for gel was observed, indicating stability of prepared
formulation. The gel developed in this study is expected to forward
the usage of M. × piperita essential towards commercial application.