Morphological Study of Trichomes in Indigofera wightii Grah. ex Wigh & Arn., Indigo Dye Species, Traditionally Used by “Thaisongdam” Thailand

The study aimed to collect morphological data of secretory structures that contribute to taxonomy of Indigofera. Detail features of trichomes occurrence in vegetative and reproductive organs of Indigofera wightii Grah. ex Wigh & Arn., a species traditionally used as source of indigo to dye “Thaisongdam” clothing were investigated. Examination through light microscopy and scanning electrom microscopy were done. Non secretory, T-shaped trichomes appeared throughout surfaces of stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. Secretory or glandular trichomes occurred in two types; one has big cylindrical head and short peduncle, distributed on adaxial surface of sepals and around the pedicel, whereas another possesses smaller cylindrical head but long peduncle. The latter was found on apical surface of immature pods. No phenolic and lipophilic compounds were detected from these glands.

Ethnobotanical Survey of Vegetable Plants Traditionally Used in Kalasin Thailand

Use of plants grown in local area for edible has a long tradition in different culture. The indigenous knowledge such as usage of plants as vegetables by local people is risk to disappear when no records are done. In order to conserve and transfer this valuable heritage to the new generation, ethnobotanical study should be investigated and documented. The survey of vegetable plants traditionally used was carried out in the year 2012. Information was accumulated via questionnaires and oral interviewing from 100 people living in 36 villages of 9 districts in Amphoe Huai Mek, Kalasin, Thailand. Local plant names, utilized parts and preparation methods of the plants were recorded. Each mentioned plant species were collected and voucher specimens were prepared. A total of 55 vegetable plant species belonging to 34 families and 54 genera were identified. The plant habits were tree, shrub, herb, climber, and shrubby fern at 21.82%, 18.18%, 38.18%, 20.00% and 1.82% respectively. The most encountered vegetable plant families were Leguminosae (20%), Cucurbitaceae (7.27%), Apiaceae (5.45%), whereas families with 3.64% uses were Araceae, Bignoniaceae, Lamiaceae, Passifloraceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. The most common consumptions were fresh or brief boiled young shoot or young leaf as side dishes of ‘jaeo, laab, namprik, pon’ or curries. Most locally known vegetables included 45% of the studied plants which grow along road side, backyard garden, hedgerow, open forest and rice field.

Fiber Microstructure in Solanum Found in Thailand

The study aimed to investigate characteristics of vegetative tissue for taxonomic purpose and possibly trend of waste application in industry. Stems and branches of 15 species in Solanum found in Thailand were prepared for fiber and examined by light microscopy. Microstructural characteristic data of fiber i.e. fiber length and width, fiber lumen diameter and fiber cell wall thickness were recorded. The longest average fiber cell length (>3.9 mm.) were obtained in S. lycopersicum L. and S. tuberosum L. Fiber cells from S. lycopersicum also revealed the widest average diameter of whole cell and its lumen at >45.5 μm and >29 μm respectively. However fiber cells with thickest wall of > 9.6 μm were belonged to the ornamental tree species, S. wrightii Benth. The results showed that the slenderness ratio, Runkel ratio, and flexibility coefficient, with potentially suitable for feedstock in paper industry fell in 4 exotic species, i.e. Solanumamericanum L., S. lycopersicum, S. seaforthianum Andr., and S. tuberosum L

Sterilisation of in vitro Culture Medium of Chrysanthemum by Plant Essential Oils without Autoclaving

The alternative technique for sterilization of culture medium to replace autoclaving was carried out. For sterilization of culture medium without autoclaving, some commercial pure essential oils, bergamot oil, betel oil, cinnamon oil, lavender oil and turmeric oil, were tested alone or in combinations with some disinfectants, 10% povidone-iodine and 2% iodine + 2.4% potassium iodide. Each essential oil or combination was added to 25-mL Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium before medium was solidified in a 120-mL container, kept for 2 weeks before evaluating sterile conditions. Treated media, supplemented with essential oils, were compared to control medium, autoclaved at 121 degree Celsius for 15 min. In vitro sterile conditions were found 20 – 100% from these treated media compared to 100% sterile condition from autoclaved medium. Treated media obtained 100% sterile conditions were chosen for culturing chrysanthemum shoots. It was found that 10% povidoneiodine in combination with cinnamon oil (3:1) and 2% iodine + 2.4% potassium iodide in combination with lavender oil (1:3) at the concentration of 36 3L/25 mL medium provided the promising growth of shoot explants.

Comparative Micro-Morphology, Anatomy and Architecture of Leaf of Physalis

Two species of Physalis, P.angulataL. and P. peruviana L. were used as models for comparative study to understand the values of micro-morphological, -anatomical and architectural characteristics of leaf for taxonomic purposes and possibly breeding and commercial applications. Both speciespossess amphistomaticleaves with 1-layer epidermis, 3-4-layer spongy mesophyll andbicollateral bundle midrib. Palisade parenchyma cells of P. angulatawere almost twice longer (65-75 μm) than the other one. Type of stomata was similar as anomocyticbut stomatal index(SI) at adaxial surface and abaxial surface of P. angulata were less than of P. peruvianaas 3.57, 4.00 and6.25, 6.66 respectively. Some leaf architectural characteristics such as leaf shape, order of venationalsoprovided information of taxonomic significance

In vitro Culture Medium Sterilization by Chemicals and Essential Oils without Autoclaving and Growth of Chrysanthemum Nodes

Plant tissue culture is an important in vitro technology applied for agricultural and industrial production. A sterile condition of culture medium is one of the main aspects. The alternative technique for medium sterilization to replace autoclaving was carried out. For sterilization of plant tissue culture medium without autoclaving, ten commercial pure essential oils and 5 disinfectants were tested. Each essential oil or disinfectant was added to a 20-mL Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium before medium was solidified in a 120-mL container, kept for 2 weeks before evaluating sterile conditions. Treated media, supplemented with essential oils or disinfectants, were compared to control medium, autoclaved at 121 degree Celsius for 15 min. Sterile conditions of MS medium were found 100% from betel oil or clove oil (18 mL/20 mL medium), cinnamon oil (36 mL/20 mL medium), lavender oil or holy basil oil (108 mL/20 mL medium), and lemon oil or tea tree oil or turmeric oil (252 mL/20 mL medium), compared to 100% sterile condition from autoclaved medium. For disinfectants, 2% iodine + 2.4% potassium iodide, 2% merbromine solution, 10% povidone-iodine, 6% sodium hypochlorite or 0.1% thimerosal at 36 mL/20 mL medium provided 100% sterile conditions. Furthermore, growth of new shoots from chrysanthemum node explants on treated media (fresh weight, shoot length, root length and number of node) were also reported and discussed in the comparison of those on autoclaved medium.

Multiple Shoot Formation of Paphiopedilum 'Delrosi'

Shoots, with three leaves, of Paphiopedilum 'Delrosi' were used as explants for multiple shoot induction. Modified Hyponex medium was supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ), N6- benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin (Kn) alone and in combinations with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). All explants were cultured for 15 weeks. It was found that TDZ alone at the concentration of 0.45μM or in combination with 4.52μM 2,4-D and 8.88μM BA in combination with 13.56μM 2,4-D promoted multiple shoots. The highest shoot sprouting efficiencies (80.0, 90.0 and 80.0%) and new shoot numbers (1.5, 1.3 and 1.1) were obtained, respectively. Fresh weight, height, numbers of leaf and root of new shoots and initial explants were discussed.

Sterilisation of Hyponex Medium by Chemicals without Autoclaving and Growth of Phalaenopsis Protocorms

For sterilization of Phalaenopsis culture medium without autoclaving, selected single sterilizing agents and in combinations were added to a 25ml Hyponex medium in a 120ml glass container. Treated liquid and solid media, supplemented with sterilizing agents, were compared to a control medium, autoclaved at 121°C for 15min. It was found that 90(L of 10% povidone-iodine, 150(L of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 150(L of 2% mercurochrome, 90(L of 2.5% iodine + 2.5% potassium iodine in combination with 10% providone-iodine (1:3) and 30(L of 2.5% iodine + 2.5% potassium iodide in combination with 2% mercurochrome showed 100% sterile conditions in liquid medium but provided 75, 100, 50, 75 and 80% sterile conditions, respectively, in solid medium. For growth of Phalaenopsis protocorms, 90(L of 10% povidone-iodine in liquid Hyponex medium gave the comparable growth of protocorms to control medium while 150(L of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in solid medium provided the promising growth of protocorms. Growth of protocorms, whole fresh weight, numbers of leaf and root, root length and number of protocorm-like bodies, was discussed.